Apart from in physical form joining computer system

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Helping Computers Communicate

Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers. Commercial Internet service providers began to emerge in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The Internet was fully commercialized in the U.S. by 1995 when NSFNET was decommissioned, removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic.

It carries pulses of light that represent data via lasers and optical amplifiers. Some advantages of optical fibers over metal wires are very low transmission loss and immunity to electrical interference. Using dense wave division multiplexing, optical fibers can simultaneously carry multiple streams of data on different wavelengths of light, which greatly increases the rate that data can be sent to up to trillions of bits per second.

Anyone can walk up and use this terminal, connected to a timeshared mainframe computer, for posting messages and announcements. That’s a radical idea when computers are mostly inaccessible to ordinary people, and seen by the counterculture as tools of government and corporate power. The ERMA system had revolutionized behind-the-scenes check processing in the 1950s, spawning the funny letters still at the bottom of checks today. During the 1960s researchers in various countries have been working on bringing automation – and online transactions – to customers in the form of an Automated Teller Machine .

While online gaming has been around since the 1970s, modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer. In an American study in 2005, the percentage of men using the Internet was very slightly ahead of the percentage of women, although this difference reversed in those under 30. Men logged on more often, spent more time online, and were more likely to be broadband users, whereas women tended to make more use of opportunities to communicate . Men were more likely to use the Internet to pay bills, participate in auctions, and for recreation such as downloading music and videos. Men and women were equally likely to use the Internet for shopping and banking. The Internet carries many network services, most prominently the World Wide Web, electronic mail, Internet telephony, and File sharing services.

It has been determined that both the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks. Large organizations, such as academic institutions, large enterprises, and governments, may perform the same function as ISPs, engaging in peering and purchasing transit on behalf of their internal networks. Research networks tend to interconnect with large subnetworks such as GEANT, GLORIAD, Internet2, and the UK’s national research and education network, JANET. Historically the word internetted was used, uncapitalized, as early as 1849 as an adjective meaning “Interconnected; interwoven”. The designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks.